Reviled by the Augustan poets and vilified as a foreign seductress, Cleopatra was called a meretrix regina , "whore queen" by Propertius, Poems , III. If she truly had not been attractive, one suspects that her detractors would have said so. On the contrary, Lucan repeatedly refers to her beauty, even as she is criticized for it. Just as Helen's "harmful beauty" had brought ruin to Troy so did that of Cleopatra inflame Rome's civil war X. It is her appearance forma that she relies upon in pleading her case to Caesar X.
Later, there is an extravagant banquet, where the "harmful beauty" X. The so-called "Berlin Cleopatra" shown above likely is of Italian provenance and may have been made when Cleopatra was in Rome. Or the bust may have been the work of an Alexandrian sculptor and brought with her. She wears the royal diadem, a broad ribbon of cloth tied around the hair that first had been worn by Alexander the Great and came to symbolize Hellenistic kingship. Small ringlets frame the brow, although later restoration has blurred the features of the original.
The purple stain to the hair also may have been the result of misguided conservation. She was the only Ptolemaic queen to mint coins with her own name and effigy in which she alone is portrayed , and the die cutters presumably knew her appearance. It was an innovation that allowed the royal mint to assign an official denomination to a coin not otherwise related to its intrinsic value.
This silver tetradrachm, which was struck in Antioch sometime after 37 BC, presents an altogether different image. Cleopatra then was about thirty-two years old and Antony, if not married to the queen, had acknowledged her two children by him. Although it does not have the wear that usually distorts the portrait of the queen, the depiction is not necessarily accurate. More Roman in style, it follows an artistic convention that the wife assimilate the appearance of her husband to better suggest their mutual harmony.
Cleopatra therefore displays the same hooked nose and prominent chin as Antony, whose own features are even more exaggerated on the obverse cf. Plutarch, Life of Antony , IV. Cleopatra is shown wearing the royal diadem and a magnificent pearl necklace, her hair braided in a characteristic "melon" hairstyle. Divided into sections like the markings of a melon and pulled back into a bun wound at the nape of the neck, space is left above the forehead for short curly bangs.
A more austere and modest hairstyle then was adopted, one consistent with the conservative republic and the modest image of women dictated by the new moralism of Augustus. This first-century BC marble bust is one of the few other portraits thought to represent the queen and identified as such in Found at the Villa dei Quintilii on the Via Appia in , it has the broad band of the diadem and possibly is a Roman copy of the gilded bronze statue of Cleopatra in the Temple of Venus Genetrix, the first time that an image of an individual had been placed next to that of a goddess Appian, The Civil Wars , II.
The knot nodus on her head may be the remnant of a crown or some other attribute, or even a knotted lock of hair. The nose is missing, which makes it difficult to judge the beauty of the queen. What he means is that, had her nose been smaller, she would have lacked the dominance and strength of character which, in the physiognomy of the seventeenth century or, indeed, the nineteenth , a large nose symbolized.
It is a salutary reminder that the aesthetics of beauty change over time and place. Rather than ask whether Cleopatra was beautiful , which cannot be answered in any event, the question should be whether she was desirable. The plaster cast of the Vatican Cleopatra left , which was taken in the Staatliche Antikensammlungen Berlin , shows the queen to good effect and may have been sculpted when she was in Rome. Here, one can appreciate how young Cleopatra was when she first met Caesar in 48 BC.
He then was more than thirty years her senior and to stay in Egypt until the next year, when she gave birth to Caesarion "little Caesar". That year too, her brother drowned in the Nile during the Alexandrian War and Cleopatra became sole ruler. She then duly married her other younger brother Ptolemy XIV but he died at her instigation in 44 BC, just months after Caesar himself had been assassinated. Caesarian then became nominal ruler as Ptolemy XV, the last of that royal lineage, until his own death in 30 BC, just days after that of his mother.
Prostitution was regulated to some extent, not so much for moral reasons as to maximize profit. Once entered there, the name could never be removed, but must remain for all time, an insurmountable bar to repentance and respectability. Caligula inaugurated a tax upon prostitutes the vectigal ex capturis , as a state impost: "he levied new and hitherto unheard of taxes; a proportion of the fees of prostitutes;—so much as each earned with one man.
A clause was also added to the law directing that women who had practiced prostitutery and men who had practiced procuration should be rated publicly; and furthermore, that marriages should be liable to the rate". Roman brothels are known from literary sources, regionary lists, and archaeological evidence. A brothel is commonly called a lupanar or lupanarium , from lupa , "she-wolf", slang  for "prostitute," or fornix , a general term for a vaulted space or cellar. According to the regionaries for the city of Rome,  lupanaria were concentrated in Regio II ;  the Caelian Hill , the Suburra that bordered the city walls, and the valley between the Caelian and Esquiline Hills.
The Great Market macellum magnum was in this district, along with many cook-shops, stalls, barber shops, the office of the public executioner, and the barracks for foreign soldiers quartered at Rome. Regio II was one of the busiest and most densely populated quarters in the entire city — an ideal location for the brothel owner or pimp.
Rent from a brothel was a legitimate source of income. The regular brothels are described as exceedingly dirty, smelling of characteristic odors lingering in poorly ventilated spaces and of the smoke from burning lamps, as noted accusingly by Seneca : "you reek still of the soot of the brothel".
Some brothels aspired to a loftier clientele. Hair dressers were on hand to repair the ravages wrought by frequent amorous conflicts, and water boys aquarioli waited by the door with bowls for washing up. The licensed houses seem to have been of two kinds: those owned and managed by a pimp leno or madam lena , and those in which the latter was merely an agent, renting rooms and acting as a supplier for his renters.
In the former, the owner kept a secretary, villicus puellarum , or an overseer for the girls. This manager assigned a girl her name, fixed her prices, received the money and provided clothing and other necessities.
The mural decoration was also in keeping with the object for which the house was maintained; see erotic art in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Over the door of each cubicle was a tablet titulus upon which was the name of the occupant and her price; the reverse bore the word occupata "occupied, in service, busy" and when the inmate was engaged the tablet was turned so that this word was out. Plautus  speaks of a less pretentious house when he says: "let her write on the door that she is occupata ".
The cubicle usually contained a lamp of bronze or, in the lower dens, of clay, a pallet or cot of some sort, over which was spread a blanket or patch-work quilt, this latter being sometimes employed as a curtain. Some brothels may have had their own token coin system, called spintria. Because intercourse with a meretrix was almost normative for the adolescent male of the period, and permitted for the married man as long as the prostitute was properly registered,  brothels were commonly dispersed around Roman cities, often found between houses of respected families.
The arches under the circus were a favorite location for prostitutes or potential prostitutes. These arcade dens were called " fornices ", from which derives the English word fornication. The taverns were generally regarded by the magistrates as brothels and the waitresses were so regarded by the law.
This passage, it should be remarked, is the only one in all his works in which he is absolutely sincere in what he says of women. The bill for the services of a girl amounted to 8 asses. This inscription is of great interest to the antiquary, and to the archeologist. That bakers were not slow in organizing the grist mills is shown by a passage from Paulus Diaconus :  "as time went on, the owners of these turned the public corn mills into pernicious frauds.
For, as the mill stones were fixed in places under ground, they set up booths on either side of these chambers and caused prostitutes to stand for hire in them, so that by these means they deceived very many, some that came for bread, others that hastened thither for the base gratification of their wantonness.
The Theatre of Pompey features multiple statues of women. Coarelli believed that the statues at Pompey's villa were of famous courtesans, after correlating the named statues with texts featuring named prostitutes. However, some scholars argue that these are actual female artists, such as poets, muses, and heroines. There is not enough evidence in the correlation between the names to suggest they are all prostitutes. Prostitutes had a role in several ancient Roman religious observances , mainly in the month of April.
According to Ovid,  prostitutes joined married women matronae in the ritual cleansing and reclothing of the cult statue of Fortuna Virilis. On 23 April, prostitutes made offerings at the Temple of Venus Erycina that had been dedicated on that date in BC, as the second temple in Rome to Venus Erycina Venus of Eryx , a goddess associated with prostitutes. The date coincided with the Vinalia , a wine festival.
On 27 April, the Floralia , held in honor of the goddess Flora and first introduced about BC, featured erotic dancing and stripping by women characterized as prostitutes. According to the Christian writer Lactantius , "in addition to the freedom of speech that pours forth every obscenity, the prostitutes, at the importunities of the rabble, strip off their clothing and act as mimes in full view of the crowd, and this they continue until full satiety comes to the shameless lookers-on, holding their attention with their wriggling buttocks".
Medieval Christian authors often discouraged prostitution, but did not consider it a serious offence and under some circumstances even considered marrying a harlot to be an act of piety. Certain modern professors of feminism have argued that a meretrix in the medieval mindset is closer to our modern understanding of a sexual identity or orientation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Aspect of ancient Roman society. For the clam genus, see Meretrix bivalve. See also: Lupanar Pompeii. Ancient Rome portal. ISSN Journal of the History of Sexuality. JSTOR Sandys eds. Horace dwells at length on the inspection of female flesh: "The matron has no softer thigh nor has she a more beautiful leg, though the setting be one of pearls and emeralds with all due respect to thy opinion, Cerinthus , the togaed plebeian's is often the finer, and, in addition, the beauties of figure are not camouflaged; that which is for sale, if honest, is shown openly, whereas deformity seeks concealment.
It is the custom among kings that, when buying horses, they inspect them in the open, lest, as is often the case, a beautiful head is sustained by a tender hoof and the eager purchaser may be seduced by shapely hocks, a short head, or an arching neck. Are these experts right in this? Thou canst appraise a figure with the eyes of Lynceus and discover its beauties; though blinder than Hypoesea herself thou canst see what deformities there are.
Ah, what a leg! What arms! But how thin her buttocks are, in very truth what a huge nose she has, she's short-waisted, too, and her feet are out of proportion! Of the matron, except for the face, nothing is open to your scrutiny unless she is a Catia who has dispensed with her clothing so that she may be felt all over thoroughly, the rest will be hidden.
But as for the other, no difficulty there! Through the Coan silk it is as easy for you to see as if she were naked, whether she has an unshapely leg, whether her foot is ugly; her waist you can examine with your eyes" Satire I, ii. Journal of Biblical Literature. XXIV 26 : Medical Publishing Company. Severus, chap. See also Horace , Satire i, 2, 30 "on the other hand, another will have none at all except she be standing in the evil-smelling cell" of the brothel ; Petronius , Satyricon" xxii "worn out by all his troubles, Ascyltos commenced to nod, and the maid, whom he had slighted, and, of course, insulted, smeared lamp-black all over his face" ; Priapeia xiii, 9 "whoever likes may enter here, smeared with the black soot of the brothel".
Ritter; Ulpian liiii, 23, De Ritu Nupt. Transactions of the American Philological Association. Their History and Habits , J. Day Biffi, Giacomo , Casta meretrix: "the chaste whore" : an essay on the ecclesiology of St. Ancient Rome topics. Outline Timeline. Foundation Kingdom overthrow Republic.
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And from what I've seen of Lawndale, it looks like a pleasant, typical suburban town. A nice place to raise a normal family. Somebody please help me. It's reassuring to know that no matter where you go, kids are the same Shockingly, Quinn fit in immediately; now she's managed to convince her new friends that it's just a coincidence that two girls named Morgendorffer happened to start school on the same day.
I kind of admire her for that. The way you'd admire Attila the Hun for being focused. Not everyone here is friendly and popular. There's this one girl named Jane who is snide, antisocial, and resentful. Finally, a friend. Jane invited me over after school to watch Sick, Sad World and help barricade the front door in case someone tried to foreclose on the house.
Her parents are out of the country for a few months and forgot to leave the mortgage payments. I met her brother, Trent. He's a musician, which means he sleeps all day and doesn't have a job. This is a cool family. Trent started talking to me, and the conversation was going pretty well until he fell asleep. Jane says that's his worst habit, and that it's really annoying when he does it while driving. But Trent asleep is more interesting than Quinn awake. Hmm, maybe I'd better burn this page. I'd hate for this diary to come back to haunt me when I'm nominated to the Supreme Court.
That's the problem. My family is active and busy. Mom has thrown herself into home and work, except for the home part. Dad has thrown himself into reading the paper at the table. Quinn has threatened to throw herself in front of a train if she's not allowed to date on weeknights. I've got the daily routine down pretty well now. Go to school, avoid making eye contact with teachers, get called on anyway. Walk halls between classes, be ignored by other students.
Go home, listen to parents' frantic messages on answering machine about working late, watch TV. It's a good life. I just hope I can keep up the frenetic pace. Elerethe Renferal. Dragons of Nightmare. Death Knight. Demon Hunter. Beast Mastery. Legion Timewalking Event.
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